The Endoplasmic Reticulum28 Februari 2010 pukul 06:01 | Ditulis dalam Uncategorized | Tinggalkan komentar
There are two regions of the ER that differ in both structure and function. One region is called rough ER because it has ribosomes attached to the cytoplasmic side of the membrane. The other region is called smooth ER because it lacks attached ribosomes. Typically, the smooth ER is a tubule network and the rough ER is a series of flattened sacs.
The rough ER manufactures membranes and secretory proteins. In leukocytes (leuk-) the rough ER produces antibodies (anti-). In pancreatic cells the rough ER produces insulin. The rough and smooth ER are usually interconnected and the proteins and membranes made by the rough ER move into the smooth ER to be transferred to other locations.
The smooth ER has a wide range of functions including carbohydrate and lipid synthesis. It serves as a transitional area for vesicles that transport ER products to various destinations. In liver cells the smooth ER produces enzymes that help to detoxify certain compounds. In muscles the smooth ER assists in the contraction of muscle cells and in brain cells it synthesizes male and female hormones.